Connection to electricity grid (injection of electricity)

This LAP deals with:
• The grid connection agreements with electricity grid operators,
• The equipment required to connect the stationary fuel cell and to inject all produced or only surplus electricity into the grid,
• The qualification requirements for professionals entitled to carry out the connection works,
• The differences in treatment between the fuel cells micro-CHP and other comparable technologies.


Connection of the Fuel cell to the electricity distribution network with the possibility to inject electricity produced by the fuel cell.
As explained above, there are different possibilities of connection to electricity grid (injection)
• Stand-alone (no injection)
• Sell surplus electricity to the grid
• Sell all electricity to the grid

Pan-European Assessment:

There is no common EU framework for connection of stationary fuel cells to the electricity grids. In general, the connection procedures among partner countries require the conclusion of a connection (injection) agreements with the local/ regional electricity network operator. Each network operator has a model text for connection contract and number of templates to be filled in. The connection requirements are more general for all types of power generating units and are not specified for FC micro-CHP systems. In some countries for the signing of the connection agreement it is necessary to submit quite extensive technical documentation and even to carry out a feasibility study, which may cause additional costs and delays. The time needed for signing of a grid connection agreement vary widely among the partner countries and may take up to six months. Although, this is not seen as a significant operational or economic barrier to the market entry of stationary fuel cells, there is a need to simplify the administrative procedures and to reduce and adapt the required technical documentation and possible preliminary studies.

severity of barrier:

No data No barrier Low Medium High